He estado muy ocupado esta semana. I have been very busy this week.
¿Nunca has visto esta película? No me lo creo. You’ve never seen this movie? I don’t believe it.
II. Past perfect
As you’ve seen above, the present perfect refers to an event that occurred at any time before the moment of speaking. The past perfect functions similarly, except that is has no relation to the present moment – we’re talking about 2 things that happened in the past. The point of reference is at a moment in the past. That is, that you “had done something” or “something had happened” before another moment in the past. Sounds a little tricky, but really it’s not. We do the exact same thing in English.